Aquaculture

水產養殖

CHINA’S GLOBAL PRODUCTION RANK (2009)

  • #1 in Freshwater Fish, Saltwater Fish, Demersal Fish (e.g. bottom feeders), Crustaceans (e.g shrimps, prawns, crabs, etc.), Cephalopods (e.g. inkfish), Molluscs (e.g. shellfish), and Algae (e.g. seaweeds)
  • #2 in Pelagic Fish (e.g. sardines, herrings, sharks, etc.)

In 2010, China accounted for 60% of global aquaculture production (by volume) and had ~14 million people (26% of the world total) engaged as fishers and fish farmers (FAO). In 2009, China produced approximately 21 million metric tons (MTs) of freshwater fish or 48% of global output, and 5.3 million MTs of crustaceans or 49% of global output.

PRODUCTION AREAS

Freshwater Seafood

  • Fish:  #1 is Hubei Province and Guangdong Provinces, #2 is Jiangsu Province, #4 Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces
  • Shrimps, Prawns, and Crabs: #1 is Jiangsu Province, #2 is Hubei Province, #3 Guangdong and Anhui Provinces
  • Shellfish:  #1 is Jiangsu Province, #2 is Anhui Province

In 2011, landlocked Hubei province accounted for 3.08 million MTs of freshwater fish or 13% of China’s total output. Guangdong province was just behind Hubei at 3.02 million MTs (also 13% of China’s output). Jiangsu province accounted for 2.4 million MTs (10% of total output). During the same year, Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui, Shandong, Guangxi, and Sichuan each recorded 1 million to 1.9 million MTs of freshwater fish output.

In 2011, the eastern coastal Jiangsu province accounted for 721,138 MTs or 29% of China’s total output of freshwater shrimps, prawns, and crabs. Following Jiangsu was Hubei province at 400,251 MTs (16% of total output) and Guangdong province at 300,686 MTs (12% of total output).  Jiangsu province was also the top producer of freshwater shellfish, totaling 122,302 MTs or 23% of China’s total output. Anhui province was second and accounted for 86,258 MTs (16% of total output) of freshwater shellfish.

China Seafood Aquaculture Production Freshwater Province

Saltwater Seafood

  • Fish:  #1 is Zhejiang Province, #2 is Shandong Province, #3 is Fujian Province, #4 is Guangdong Province
  • Shrimps, Prawns, and Crabs:  #1 is Zhejiang Province, #2 is Guangdong Province, #3 is Fujian Province
  • Shellfish: #1 is Shandong Province, #2 is Fujian Province, #3 is Liaoning Province
  • Algae:  #1 is Fujian Province, #2 is Shandong Province, #3 is Liaoning Province

In 2011, the eastern coastal province of Zhejiang accounted for 2.3 million MTs or 23% of China’s total saltwater fish output. The coastal provinces of Shandong, Fujian, and Guangdong accounted for 1.4 million to 1.9 million MTs of saltwater fish. Zhejiang province was also the top producer of saltwater shrimps, prawns, and crabs, accounting for 825,436 MTs of 26% of China’s total output in 2011.  The provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and Shandong each accounted for 300,000-600,000 MTs of saltwater shrimps, prawns, and crabs.

In 2011, the northeastern coastal province of Shandong accounted for 3.4 million MTs or 28% China’s total saltwater shellfish output. The provinces of Fujian, Liaoning, and Guangdong each accounted for 1.9 million to 2.2 million MTs of saltwater shellfish. Chinese algae (e.g. seaweed) production primarily takes place in Fujian province (630,215 MTs or 39% of total output), Shandong province (509,405 MTs or 31% of total output), and Liaoning province (312,425 MTs or 19% of total output).

China Seafood Aquaculture Production Saltwater Province

PRODUCTION & BREEDING AREA

Freshwater Seafood

Naturally vs. Artificially Grown

  • 1978: 28% grown naturally (72% artificially)
  • 2011: 8% grown naturally (92% artificially)

Fish

  • 1978: 997,049 MTs
  • 2011: 23.4 million MTs

Shrimps, Prawns, and Crabs

  • 1978: 38,101 MTs
  • 2011: 2.4 million MTs

Shellfish

  • 1978: 23.545 MTs
  • 2011: 538,789 MTs

Chinese freshwater seafood production is dominated by artificially cultured (i.e. farmed) fish. From 2000 to 2011, freshwater fish production increased an average of 5% annually. From 2009 to 2011, this rise equated to 1.1. million MT year-on-year production increase. The production of freshwater shrimps, prawns, and crabs exhibited the most robust growth, with output increasing an average of 13% per year from 2000 to 2011. However, from 2010 to 2011, output rose only marginally (<1%), plateauing at 2.4 million MTs. Freshwater shellfish production was minimal and hovered around 520,000 MTs from 2006 to 2011.

China Seafood Aquaculture Production Freshwater

Saltwater Seafood

Naturally vs. Artificially Grown

  • 1978: 87% grown naturally (13% artificially)
  • 2011: 47% grown naturally (53% artificially)

Fish

  • 1978: 2.5 million MTs
  • 2011: 10.7 million MTs

Shrimps, Prawns, and Crabs

  • 1978: 505,862 MTs
  • 2011: 3.2 million MTs

Shellfish

  • 1978: 268,365 MTs
  • 2011: 12.1 million MTs

Algae

  • 1978: 259,839 MTs
  • 2011: 1.6 million MTs

Chinese saltwater seafood production is dominated by fish and shellfish, with a relatively even distribution of artificially cultured (i.e. farmed) and naturally grown seafood, however the trend is towards artificially cultured products. From 2000 to 2010, saltwater fish production was stagnant and ranged from 8.8 million to 9.1 million MTs. In 2011, saltwater fish production spiked, topping 10 million MTs for the first time ever. Saltwater shellfish production showed more robust growth, increasing on average 3% annually from 2000 to 2011. Over the same period, saltwater shrimp, prawns, and crab production ranged from 2.5 million to 3.2 million MTs per year. Algae production has shown remarkable growth, increasing on average 4% annually from 2000 to 2011.

China Seafood Aquaculture Production Saltwater

Additional Reading

  • “The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture” Food and Agriculture Organization; 2012

 

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